*This article was published in Homiletic & Pastoral Review (Nov. 2003) and in Ephemerides Mariologicae (April-June, 2003).
On Nov. 21, 1964, at close of the third session of the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI proclaimed the Blessed Virgin Mary “Mother of the Church.” The Holy Father bestowed on Mary this glorious title in the context of promulgating the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium (LG), the eighth chapter of which expounds the relation of Mary with Christ and the Church. He told the Council Fathers:
“Our consideration of the close connections that exist between Mary and the Church, and that have been so clearly explained in this conciliar Constitution, leads Us to feel that this solemn moment is the most opportune time for us to fulfill a wish that We indicated at the end of the last session. Many Fathers have since taken it up in the form of requests that the maternal role that the Blessed Virgin Mary fulfills with regard to the Christian people be proclaimed at this Council in explicit terms. And so…We declare Mary Most Holy to be Mother of the Church, that is of the whole Christian people, both the faithful and the bishops, who call her a most loving Mother. We decree that from now on the whole of the Christian people should us this sweetest of names to pay more honor to the Mother of God and to pour out their prayers to her.”
With these words Pope Paul VI emphasized how the title Mother of the Church explicates Mary’s maternal role towards all the members of Christ’s Mystical Body, the Church. In the same address the Holy Father explained the reason for this title, saying that this name “is firmly based on the dignity Mary has as Mother of the Incarnate Word of God;” for
“the divine Maternity is the source of those relationships that exist between Mary and the Church; since Mary is the Mother of Christ, who as soon as He took on a human nature in her virginal womb, united to Himself as its Head His Mystical Body which is the Church. And so Mary, as the Mother of Christ, must be regarded as the Mother of all the faithful and the bishops, which means of the Church.”
Basis in Scripture and Tradition
The title Mother of the Church and the truth it expresses — Mary’s maternal relationship to the members of Christ’s Body, the Church – is a doctrine that has developed over the centuries. The doctrine is implicit in Scripture and in early Tradition. St. Augustine’s words, quoted in ch. 8 of LG, offer the strongest early testimony in favor of this doctrine: that Mary “is clearly the mother of the members of Christ…since she has by her charity joined in bringing about the birth of believers in the Church, who are members of its head.”
The first explicit reference to Mary as Mater Ecclesiae comes in the twelfth century with Berengaud, who in reference to the “woman” in Rev. 12, says that Mary “is Mother of the Church because she brought forth him who is the Head of the Church.” The title came into more general use after the fourteenth century.
In papal magisteria the title Mother of the Church was first used explicitly by Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical on the Rosary, Adiutricem: “She was, in very truth, Mother of the Church, the Teacher and Queen of the Apostles.” For scriptural support Leo XIII looks to Jesus’ words to Mary on Calvary, “Behold thy son” (19:26), which reveal that “in John, as the Church has constantly taught, Christ designated the whole human race….”
Pope Pius XII, in his encyclical, Mystici Corporis, says of Mary: “she who, according to the flesh, was the mother of our Head, through the added title of pain and glory became, according to the Sprit, the mother of all His members;” and that “she continues to have for the Mystical Body of Christ…the same motherly care and ardent love with which she cherished and fed the Infant Jesus in the crib.”
Herein I will demonstrate how the use of this title Mother of the Church and the doctrine which it encompasses have undergone development in the magisteria of Popes Paul VI and John Paul II; and how with the publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC), the title Mother of the Church places the teaching of LG ch. 8 on Mary’s role in the Church and her relationship to all the faithful, in its proper context.
The Magisterium of Pope Paul VI
An important but often overlooked fact is that in the same address in which he proclaimed Mary to be Mother of the Church, Pope Paul VI, in the presence of all the Council Fathers, commemorated the act of consecration of the Church and the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by Pope Pius XII on Oct. 31, 1942, saying that, “it is only right for Us to commemorate this very holy act of devotion in a special way here today.”
In commemorating Pope Pius XII’s act of consecration of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in the “double” context of 1) the promulgation of Lumen Gentium and of 2) the declaration of Mary as Mother of the Church, Paul VI, in a solemn act of his magisterium, linked Mary’s motherhood of all the faithful with devotion to her Immaculate Heart. Furthermore, because LG nos. 61 & 62 teach that Mary is our Mother in the order of grace, Pope Paul VI, in his declaration of Nov. 21, 1964, has expressed a similar link between devotion to Mary’s Immaculate Heart and her motherly intercession on our behalf in obtaining for us “the gifts of eternal salvation.”
A few months after declaring Mary to be Mother of the Church, in his very next public address entitled, “The Mind of the Council on Mary” (on the Feast of the Purification of Mary), Pope Paul VI again used the title, developing further the doctrine it encompasses. The Holy Father explained that,
“under one aspect the Blessed Virgin is a part, a daughter of the Church, our sister, because like us, although in an eminent and privileged way, she too has been redeemed by Christ; but under another aspect, because she is the one who generated the Son of God made man, she is the ‘Theotokos,’ the Mother of God, Queen of the Church, Mother of the Mystical Body according to faith and charity.”
In his apostolic exhortation Signum Magnum, addressed to all the bishops of the world, Pope Paul VI reiterated the importance of the title Mother of the Church, and again (as he had done when he proclaimed the title) linked it to the private revelations given by Our Lady at Fatima, especially the revelations concerning consecration to her Immaculate Heart. In this regard the following points are worthy of note:
1) Signum Magnum was given at Rome on May 13, 1967, the 50th anniversary of the first apparition of Our Lady at Fatima (May 13, 1917), and the 25th anniversary of the consecration of the Church and the whole human race to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by Pope Pius XII (Nov. 21, 1942);
2) Earlier that same day (May 13, 1967) the Holy Father had visited Fatima and gave homily commemorating both the Fatima apparitions and the consecration of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary by Pius XII;
3) In Signum Magnum, Paul VI made explicit reference to: a) Pope Pius XII’s consecration of the Church and the whole human race to the Immaculate Heart of Mary; and b) the fact that he had repeated this consecration on Nov. 21, 1964 (when he promulgated Lumen Gentium and proclaimed Mary to be Mother of the Church); and
4) He urged all members of the Church “to consecrate themselves once again to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, [and] to translate this pious act into concrete action in their daily lives.”
Pope Paul VI begins Signum Magnum with a reference to the “great sign” which the Apostle John describes in Revelation 12:1: “a woman clothed with the sun.” The sacred liturgy, says the Holy Father, “interprets this sign as the Blessed Virgin Mary who, by the grace of Christ the Redeemer, is the mother of all men.” Paul VI then recalls his proclamation of Mary as “the spiritual Mother of the Church – mother, that is, of all its faithful and of all its sacred pastors.” By quoting Rev. 12:1, he offers further biblical support for the title Mother of the Church.
In the lines that follow Paul VI makes two references to Mary’s “maternal heart,” and then lays out the purpose of the exhortation: “to remind all members of the Church of the close and enduring connection between Mary’s spiritual motherhood – spelled out so clearly in the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church – and the duties of all redeemed men toward her as Mother of the Church.”
In explaining Mary’s motherhood in relation to the Church/its members, Paul VI lays down this important principle: “No human mother can limit her task solely to the procreation of new human beings; she must also undertake the task of nourishing and educating them. So it is with the Blessed Virgin Mary.” Because Mary cooperated intimately with her Son’s sacrifice for our redemption, Jesus “designated her the mother not only of John the Apostle but also…of the whole human race, which he somehow represented. Now in heaven, she carries on her motherly role, helping to nourish and foster the divine life in the souls of redeemed men.”
The Pope then explains how does Mary this: by her “unceasing supplications, which are prompted by her deep love…United with Jesus Christ, who ‘lives always to make intercession for them,’ [Heb. 7:25]…she offers herself as their ‘Advocate, Auxiliatrix, Adjutrix and Mediatrix’ [LG 62].” With these words Paul VI places the teaching of ch. 8 of Lumen Gentium on Mary’s intercessory role clearly within the context of her spiritual motherhood, as Mother of the Church – that is, its members.
Not only is Mary our Mother; she is also a model to be imitated. While the imitation of Jesus Christ “is certainly the royal road we must travel to acquire holiness,” says the Holy Father, “The Catholic Church…has also proclaimed that the imitation of the Virgin Mary, far from turning us away from the imitation of Christ, makes it easier and more pleasant…Hence, even where the imitation of Christ is concerned, this general norm obtains: ‘To Jesus through Mary.’” As regards St. Paul’s phrase, “Be imitators of me, as I am of Christ” (1 Cor. 4:16), Paul VI says: “The Mother of the Church has even more right than St. Paul to direct this invitation to believing Christians.”
In Signum Magnum the Pope teaches that as Mother of the Church, Mary exercises a maternal role in Heaven: “Mary’s spiritual motherhood transcends the boundaries of time and space…she never ceases to exercise her maternal office or to help us.” He refers to Mary’s “providential role in salvation history,” and says that “in every age – past, present and future – the Church benefits from the maternal presence of God’s Mother, because she is tied by an enduring bond to the mystery of the Mystical Body.”
On the Cross, Christ “bequeathed” to us His Mother “as a spiritual inheritance, along with the rich store of grace and virtue she had accumulated. Through her powerful intercession and our zealous imitation,” says the Pope, “they would redound to our benefit.” He then quotes the great Doctor of Clairvaux, St. Bernard: “Coming to her, the Holy Spirit filled her with grace for herself; when the same Spirit pervaded her again, she became super-abundant and overflowing with grace for us also.” Here Paul VI makes clear that Mary’s spiritual motherhood in the order of grace (as taught by LG 61-62) is a function of her spiritual motherhood of the Church. In other words, it is because Mary is the Mother of the Church – i.e., spiritual Mother of all the faithful – that she is our spiritual Mother in the order of grace.
At the end of his apostolic exhortation, Paul VI sets forth Mary’s Immaculate Heart – the pure and loving Heart of the Mother of all the faithful — as a model worthy of imitation and as a most powerful means to reconciliation, grace, reparation and unity:
“May the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin Mary shine forth to all Christians as the model for perfect love of God and neighbor. May it draw the faithful to take part in the Church’s Sacraments, through which they are liberated and protected from sin. May it stimulate them to atone for the countless offenses committed against God’s majesty. May it serve as the sign of unity and the spur to brotherhood among all Christians….”
If we consider Signum Magnum in light of Pope Paul VI’s proclamation of Mary as Mother of the Church, it becomes evident that there exists a link between Mary’s spiritual motherhood of all the faithful and the message of Fatima — a link which Paul VI sets forth clearly and forcefully. Furthermore, the Holy Father’s words quoted above regarding Mary’s Immaculate Heart, and his exhortation at the end of Signum Magnum for “all members of the Church to consecrate themselves once again to the Immaculate Heart of Mary” and “to translate this pious act into concrete action in their daily lives,” reveals that the Holy Father was endeavoring to make known and to carry out the requests made by Our Lady at Fatima: “to establish in the world devotion to my Immaculate Heart,” and to undertake prayer (especially the Rosary) and reparation for the conversion of sinners, in order to attain world peace.
In his 1974 apostolic exhortation explaining the right ordering and development of devotion to Mary, Marialis Cultus, Pope Paul VI teaches that the truth of Mary being Mother of the Church — i.e., Mother of both Head and members of Christ’s Mystical Body — cannot be separated from the reality of the Church as Mother of those same members. Paul VI speaks of the “brotherhood” which unites all the members of the Mystical Body of Christ “as sons and daughters of the Virgin Mary;” and then relates Mary’s spiritual motherhood to that of the Church, saying that, “both the Church and Mary collaborate to give birth to the Mystical Body of Christ since [quoting Bl. Isaac of Stella] ‘both of them are the Mother of Christ, but neither brings forth the whole (body) independently of the other.’” A few lines further the Holy Father again quotes Bl. Isaac to further emphasize his point: “The Church was united…in the Upper Room with Mary the Mother of Jesus and with his brethren. The Church therefore cannot be referred to as such unless it includes Mary the Mother of our Lord, together with his brethren.”
In the conclusion of his exhortation Paul VI speaks of the effective nature of Mary’s spiritual motherhood: “Mary’s many-sided mission to the People of God is a supernatural reality which operates and bears fruit within the body of the Church;” and this mission, “with its individual effectiveness, is directed towards the same end, namely, producing in the children the spiritual characteristics of the first-born Son” (emphasis added). This is accomplished, says the Pope, by: 1) Mary’s maternal intercession; for she is “ever ready to listen with a mother’s affection and efficacious assistance;” 2) her exemplary holiness, which encourages the faithful to look to Mary as a “model of the virtues;” and 3) being devoted and obedient children of our loving Mother; for Mary tells all of us, as she told the servants at the marriage feast of Cana, “Do whatever he tells you” (Jn. 2:5).
The Magisterium of Pope John Paul II
From the very beginning of his pontificate and in the years that have followed, Pope John Paul II has continued to proclaim the doctrine of Mary as Mother of the Church, in order to make better known the great proclamation of his predecessor, Pope Paul VI.
In his first papal address, in his Urbi et Orbi message on Oct. 17, 1978, the day after his election as Supreme Pontiff, John Paul II said, “we cannot do other than turn our mind with filial devotion to the Virgin Mary, who always lives and acts as a Mother in the mystery of Christ, and repeat the words ‘Totus tuus’ (all thine) which we inscribed on our heart and on our coat of arms twenty years ago on the day of our episcopal ordination.”
Less than two months later Pope John Paul put the words “Totus tuus,” and the concept of entrustment of the Church and himself to Mary, in the context of her mother-hood of the Church. On Dec. 8, 1978, the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception, Pope John Paul offered Mass in the Basilica of St. Mary Major, his first visit there as the Supreme Pontiff. Fittingly, he began his homily that day by recalling how on Nov. 21, 1964, at the closing of the third session of the Second Vatican Council, with the world’s bishops present in the very same basilica, Pope Paul VI proclaimed Mary “Mother of the Church” for the first time. Pope John Paul said the reason that Paul VI began to call Mary by that title was, “above all to invoke her to take part as Mother in the life of the Church.” He also said the reason Pope Paul VI gathered with the Council Fathers at St. Mary Major Basilica was “to lay even greater emphasis on this expression,” since Mary had for centuries been venerated at this basilica under the title of Salus Populi Romani (Salvation of the Roman People), where the icon bearing this title rests.
To bring the doctrine of Mary Mother of the Church to the pastoral level, Pope John Paul ended his homily that day saying that he “wishes to entrust the Church particularly to her in whom there was accomplished the stupendous and complete victory of good over evil, of love over hatred, of grace over sin.” In addition, he entrusted to Mary both himself and “the Roman Church, as the token and principle of all the Churches in the world, in their universal unity,” saying, “He [the Pope] entrusts it to her and offers it to her as her property.” To further emphasize the entrustment of himself to Mary and (at the same time) Mary’s spiritual motherhood over all the faithful, including the Roman Pontiff, he went on to say: “Totus Tuus ego sum et omnia mea Tua sunt. Accipio Te in mea omnia!” (“I am all yours, and all that I have is yours. May You be my guide in everything”).
Near the end of his first encyclical, Redemptor Hominis (The Redeemer of Man), Pope John Paul II explained the theological foundations for the doctrine of Mary as Mother of the Church. After pointing out that the Church is a mother, and that the Church itself “always…has need of a Mother,” he says:
“Mary is Mother of the Church because, on account of the Eternal Father’s ineffable choice and due to the Spirit of Love’s special action, she gave human life to the Son of God, ‘for whom and by whom all things exist’ and from whom the whole of the People of God receives the grace and dignity of election. Her Son explicitly extended his Mother’s maternity in a way that could easily be understood by every soul and every heart by designating, when he was raised on the Cross, his beloved disciple as her Son. The Holy Spirit inspired her to remain in the Upper Room, after our Lord’s Ascension, recollected in prayer and expectation, together with the Apostles, until the day of Pentecost, when the Church was to be born in visible form, coming forth from darkness. Later, all the generations of disciples…like the Apostle John, spiritually took this Mother to their homes, and she was thus included in the history of salvation and in the Church’s mission from the very beginning. “‘
In his homilies and addresses in the years of his pontificate that have followed, and especially when visiting other countries, Pope John Paul has consistently made it a point to invoke Mary under the title Mother of the Church, along with other Marian titles particular to the nations he visits.
Probably one of the most significant “applications” of the title and doctrine of Mother of the Church by Pope John Paul II came on Pentecost Sunday, June 7, 1981, when in an address at St. Mary Major Basilica he made an act of entrustment and dedication of the “whole human family” to the Holy Spirit in the heart of Mary, while invoking Mary as “Mother of the Church.” Of particular importance was the fact that on this day the Church was celebrating the 1600th anniversary of the First Council of Constantinople (381), at which the divinity of the Holy Spirit was solemnly defined (Credo in Spiritum Sanctum, dominum et vivificantem), as well as the 1550th anniversary of the Council of Ephesus (431), which defined Mary as Theotokos, Mother of God. The Holy Father used this occasion to pray for unity between the Catholic West and the Orthodox East.
In his talk at the afternoon vespers, after thanking the Holy Spirit for the birth of the Church, Pope John Paul said that ever since Pentecost Mary communicates her own motherhood to the Church: “Let us give thanks for the Motherhood of Mary which was communicated to the Church and continues to be so! Let us give thanks to the Mother who is ever present in the Upper Room of Pentecost! Let us give thanks because we can also call her the Mother of the Church!” (Emphasis added.)
In these words of the Holy Father we have a truly profound teaching: that in addition to the work of Jesus Christ with His Death and Resurrection and of the Holy Spirit who came with gifts and graces on Pentecost, the source of the Church’s motherhood is, and continues to be, the spiritual motherhood of Mary in the order of grace — understood, of course, in a subordinate manner, in that God dispenses His graces and benefits through her (cf. LG 62).
In his same address, Pope John Paul explains the reasons why this is so. He addresses Mary directly, saying: “You, who more than any other human being were entrusted to the Holy Spirit…;” “You, who are in such a profound and maternal way linked to the Church…embrace all who are on pilgrimage through the temporal life toward their eternal destiny…with that love which the divine Redeemer himself, your Son, poured into your heart as he hung on the Cross” (emphasis added). In other words, the spiritual motherhood of Mary is superabundantly fruitful and the source of the Church’s motherhood, first, because of Mary’s Immaculate Conception, at which time she was entrusted to the Holy Spirit in a mystical union as His beloved bride; and second, because her spiritual motherhood is the fruit both of her divine motherhood and of her intimate and unique cooperation on Calvary in the very act of redemption (cf. LG 58, 61-62), when Jesus announced her motherhood of all the faithful (“Woman, behold thy son” Jn. 19:26-27) and poured forth the love and grace from His Sacred Heart into her Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart (cf. LG 58) — which love and grace in turn has been and continues to be communicated to the Church.
The Pope’s words quoted above also give witness to the truth of the union between the Hearts of Jesus and Mary (“that love…your Son poured into your heart as he hung on the Cross”), and the supernatural effects of this union in regard to Mary’s place in the order of redemption and grace – as our Mother in the Order of Grace.
Another way of expressing the Holy Father’s teaching here is to say that on Calvary Jesus Christ, through the Holy Spirit, poured the love and grace of His Heart into the Heart of His Mother; and that beginning at Pentecost that same love, in the form of the spiritual motherhood of Mary, was and continues to be communicated to the Church. As Lumen Gentium teaches, “This motherhood of Mary in the order of grace continues uninterruptedly from the consent which she loyally gave at the Annunciation and which she sustained without wavering beneath the cross, until the eternal fulfillment of all the elect. Taken up into heaven she did not lay aside this saving office but by her manifold intercession continues to bring us the gifts of eternal salvation” (LG 62; cf. CCC, 969).
In his address that afternoon, after invoking Mary’s glorious title as Mother of the Church, the Pope calls Mary “the first handmaid of the unity of Christ’s body,” and asks her to “help all the faithful who feel so keenly the tragedy of historical divisions of Christianity, to seek persistently the path to perfect unity of the body of Christ through unreserved fidelity to the spirit of truth and love.”
In his 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater (Mother of the Redeemer), Pope John Paul relates Mary’s motherhood of the Church to what he calls the “crowning moment” in the “salvific economy of grace” — namely “when Christ’s sacrifice on the cross, his paschal mystery, is accomplished.” With Jesus’ words, “Woman, behold your son!” (Jn. 19:27), Mary’s motherhood of the human race is now “clearly stated and established…The mother of Christ,” says the Pope, “is given to every single individual and all mankind.” This “new motherhood of Mary,” he says, “generated by faith, is the fruit of the ‘new’ love which came to definitive maturity in her at the foot of the cross, through her sharing in the redemptive love of her son.” Furthermore, “In accordance with the eternal plan of providence, Mary’s divine motherhood is to be poured out upon the church…according to which Mary’s ‘motherhood’ of the church is the reflection and extension of her motherhood of the Son of God” (emphasis added).
Pope John Paul says that, “the very moment of the church’s birth and full manifestation to the world enables us to glimpse this continuity of Mary’s motherhood,” and then quotes Lumen Gentium (LG) which says that on Pentecost, “We see Mary prayerfully imploring the gift of the Spirit, who had already overshadowed her in the annunciation” (LG 59). “And so,” teaches the Holy Father,
“in the redemptive economy of grace brought about through the action of the Holy Spirit, there is a unique correspondence between the moment of the incarnation of the Word and the moment of the birth of the church. The person who links these two moments is Mary: Mary at Nazareth and Mary in the Upper Room at Jerusalem. In both cases her discreet yet essential presence indicates the path of ‘birth from the Holy Spirit.’ Thus she who is present in the mystery of Christ as mother becomes – by the will of the Son and the power of the Holy Spirit – present in the mystery of the church. In the church too she continues to be a maternal presence, as is shown by the words spoken from the cross: ‘Woman, behold your son!’; ‘Behold your mother.’”
The CCC sets forth the teaching on Mary’s motherhood in Part One (the Profession of Faith), article 9 (“I Believe in the Holy Catholic Church”). In par. 6 of art. 9, Mary’s motherhood appears within a “dual context”: “Mary – Mother of Christ, Mother of the Church.” CCC 963 teaches: “The Virgin Mary…is acknowledged and honored as being truly the Mother of God and of the redeemer;” and then quotes LG 53 (which quotes St. Augustine): “She is ‘clearly the mother of the members of Christ’…since she has by her charity joined in bringing about the birth of the believers in the Church, who are members of its head.” Significantly, the doctrine of Mary’s motherhood in the order of grace as taught by LG 61 and 62 appears in the CCC (pars. 968-69) within the context of Mary’s motherhood of the Church.
In a Wednesday general audience on September 17, 1997, as part of his then-ongoing catechesis on the Blessed Virgin Mary, Pope John Paul gives his listeners an historical summary of the title Mother of the Church. He says that while the Second Vatican Council (LG, ch.8) “does not explicitly attribute the title ‘Mother of the Church’ to the Blessed Virgin…it unmistakably expresses its content by repeating a statement made in 1748…by Pope Benedict XIV (Bullarium Romanum, series 2, t. 2, n. 61, p. 428).” He says that Lumen Gentium, which describes “the filial sentiments of the Church, [and] which recognizes Mary as her most beloved mother, indirectly proclaims her Mother of the Church…the title was rarely used in the past, but has recently become more common in the pronouncements of the Church’s Magisterium and in the devotion of the Christian people.”
The Holy Father ends his address by saying that the title Mother of the Church “thus reflects the deep conviction of the Christian faithful, who see in Mary not only the mother of the person of Christ, but also of the faithful;” and says that Paul VI “explicitly enunciated the doctrine contained in chapter eight of Lumen Gentium, hoping that the title of Mary, Mother of the Church, would have an even more important place in the liturgy and piety of the Christian people.”
We must pray that the desires of both Paul VI and John Paul II be fulfilled, and that Mary be better known and invoked under this glorious title!
 Pope Paul VI, Address at the Close of the Third Session of the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Nov. 21, 1964; The Pope Speaks, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1965), 138.
 Ibid., 139.
 Cf. Michael O’Carroll, C.S.Sp., Theotokos: A Theological Encyclopedia of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Wilmington, Del.: Michael Glazier, Inc., 1986), 252.
 St. Augustine, De S. Virginitate, 6: PL 40, 399, quoted in Lumen Gentium, No. 53; cf. CCC 963.
 PL 17, 876 CD, quoted in Theotokos, 252.
 Theotokos, 253.
 Pope Leo XIII, Encylical, Adiutricem (On the Rosary), Sept. 5, 1895, No. 6; Claudia Carlen, I.H.M., The Papal Encyclicals 1878-1903 (Raleigh, N.C.: McGrath Publishing Co., “Consortium Book,” 1981), 375-80; 376.
 Ibid., Carlen, 376.
 Pope Pius XII, Encyclical, Mystici Corporis (On the Mystical Body of Christ), June 29, 1943; Carlen, The Papal Encyclicals 1939-1959, 37-62, 60.
 AAS 34 (1942), 318, 325; in Arthur Burton Calkins, Totus Tuus: John Paul II’s Program of Marian Consecration and Entrustment (Libertyville, Il.: Academy of the Immacualate, 1992), 102. Pope Pius XII consecrated the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1942 pursuant to a request by the Blessed Virgin Mary to Sr. Lucia, one of the seers at Fatima, on June 13, 1929. Cf. Fatima in Lucia’s Own Words: Sister Lucia’s Memoirs, ed. Fr. Louis Kondot, S.V.D., trans. Dominican Nuns of Perpetual Rosary (Fatima, Portugal: Postulation Centre, 1976), 199-200. Sr. Lucia, in a letter dated Dec. 2, 1940, told Pius XII of Our Lady’s request. Cf. Antonio Maria Martins, S.J., and Fr. Robert Fox, Documents on Fatima & the Memoirs of Sister Lucia (Waite Park, Mn.: Park Press, Inc., 2002), “Letter Sent to the Holy Father,” 385-86.
 The Pope Speaks, op. cit., 138.
 Cf. CCC 967-70, which places Mary’s Motherhood in the order of grace in the context of her being Mother of the Church.
 LG 62.
 Pope Paul VI, “The Mind of the Council on Mary,” The Pope Speaks, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1965), 103.
 Pope Paul VI, Signum Magnum (On Venerating and Imitating the Virgin Mary, Mother of the Church and Model of All Virtues), Apostolic Exhortation, May 13, 1967; The Pope Speaks, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1967), 278-286.
 “Prayer Intentions at Fatima,” Homily of Pope Paul VI at 50th Anniversary Celebration of the Fatima Apparitions; The Pope Speaks, Vol. 12, No. 2 (1967), 93-6; 93.
 Signum Magnum, The Pope Speaks, Vol. 12, No. 3, 285.
 At the sixth and final apparition at Fatima, on Oct. 13, 1917, the so-called “miracle of the sun” (which coincided with Our Lady’s appearance) was witnessed by over 70,000 people.
 Signum Magnum in The Pope Speaks, op. cit., 278.
 Ibid., 279.
 Ibid., 280.
 Ibid., 281.
 Ibid., 283-4.
 Ibid., 284.
 St. Bernard, Hom. 2, no. 2: PL 183, 64, cited in Ibid.
 The Pope Speaks, op. cit., 286.
 Fatima in Lucia’s Own Words, op. cit., 161.
 Ibid., cf. 160-68.
 Pope Paul VI, Encyclical Marialis Cultus (On the Right Ordering and Development of Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary), Feb. 2, 1974; 17 Papal Documents on the Rosary (Boston, MA: Daughters of St. Paul, 1980), 23-74.
 Ibid., no. 28; quoting Isaac of Stella, Sermo LI, In Assumptione B. Mariae: PL 194, 1863.
 Ibid., quoting Isaac of Stella, Sermo XXX, 1: SCh 164, 134.
 Ibid., no. 57.
 Pope John Paul II, Urbi et Orbi (“To the City and to the World”) Message, Oct. 17, 1978; ORE (Oct. 26, 1978), 3, 4.
 Pope John Paul II, Homily, Dec. 8, 1978, ORE (Dec. 21, 1978), 3.
 Ibid., 4.
 Pope John Paul II, Encyclical Redemptor Hominis (The Redeemer of Man), Carlen, The Papal Encyclicals 1958-81, 245-73.
 Ibid., no. 91; Carlen, 269.
 Pope John Paul II, Afternoon Address, June 7, 1981; ORE ( June 15, 1981), 10.
 Pope John Paul II, Ibid.; ORE, ibid., 10.
 Pope John Paul II, Encyclical Redemptoris Mater (Mother of the Redeemer), March 25, 1987; Origins (Vol. 16, No. 43, April 9, 1987), 745-766.
 Ibid., no. 23
 Ibid., no. 24.
 Ibid., no. 24.
 Pope John Paul II, Wed. General Audience Address, Sept. 17, 1997, ORE (Sept. 24, 1997), 11.